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Published on ClearLaw legal bulletin
Author: Maddocks Lawyers
The federal government has predicted that by 2022 there will be four million people in Australia aged between 65 and 84 years. The most recent ATO statistics show that at 30 June 2017, there were just over 1.1 million SMSF members, of whom 83% were 45 or older. The average member age was 58 years old.
In the coming years there will be a significant number of SMSF trustees entering an age where the deterioration of mental capacity is a probable risk. Planning for the eventuality of loss of capacity is just as important as estate planning.
Section 17A(2) of the Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act 1993 (SIS Act) states that for a sole-member SMSF to be compliant, the member must be one of only 2 trustees. Alternatively, the member can be the sole director of the corporate trustee, or one of two directors of the corporate trustee.
However, the SIS Act also contemplates a scenario where a person who has lost capacity can remain as a member despite needing to be removed as trustee. Section 17A(3) says that a SMSF will still be valid if a member loses capacity if:
Accordingly, a SMSF will still be compliant where there is one sole incapacitated member with an LPR acting as trustee/director of the corporate trustee in place of that member.
Jane is the sole member of a SMSF and is one of two trustees. The other trustee is her husband John. She has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and has an enduring power of attorney in place appointing her daughter Emma as her LPR. In every case the deed should be reviewed relating to how trustees are removed and appointed, however, the trustee with capacity should effect the replacement of Jane as trustee by appointing Emma in her place. Jane remains as a sole member and the SMSF remains valid.
An enduring power of attorney is a legal document by which a person appoints another person who can act – as a legal personal representative – for the incapacitated member during the period of incapacity. It allows the attorney to make certain decisions on the person’s behalf. These decisions can be for either financial or personal matters or both.
There are some points to note about the power of attorney:
Where an enduring power of attorney is executed in favour of multiple attorneys, one or more of those attorneys can be appointed as trustee/corporate director in place of the member – noting that the maximum number of SMSF trustees/corporate directors contemplated by the SIS Act is 4.
It is important to note whether multiple attorneys have been appointed to act ‘jointly’ or ‘severally’ under an enduring power of attorney, as this will affect the decision-making process by which they appoint one or more attorneys to act as trustee/corporate director. If one out of four attorneys has the power to act severally, then one attorney has the power to make decisions on behalf of the incapacitated member without consulting the other attorneys – and could conceivably accept an appointment to act as the only trustee/corporate director in place of the incapacitated member. However, if each attorney is appointed ‘jointly’ then all decisions must be made as a group – that group would need to make a decision about who is to be appointed as trustee/corporate director.
Once appointed, either as an individual trustee or director of a corporate trustee, those persons will be bound by legal and fiduciary obligations by virtue of their new position.
Whether or not you can remove and appoint an individual or a corporate trustee will depend on the terms of the trust deed governing the SMSF. In the case of replacing directors of a corporate trustee, the constitution of the company will set out the process for removal and appointment.
Usually, a SMSF trust deed will require any appointment or removal of trustees to be in writing.
You should also check the terms of the enduring power of attorney to ensure that it is valid and contemplates an attorney making financial decisions (whether jointly or severally) on behalf of the incapacitated member.
Elder law is an area of law that seems to be increasingly under the spotlight. It’s seen as a niche & specialised are of the law, but is one that will affect us all in our old age. Even more so over the next few years with our aging population.
Typically we refer to an Elder as being 65 years of age and over.
When people enter this period of their lives there is much to think about. They will need to ensure they have a legal and valid will, they’ll need to appoint an Executor and a Power of Attorney, perhaps they’ll make an Advance Health Care Directive, and may need to start thinking about a retirement village or a nursing home.
The Federal Attorney-General, Christian Porter and the Council of Attorneys-General recently announced a national plan to address the increasing incidents of elder abuse. Part of the government’s plan will be to conduct an Australia wide in-depth study into the way that elders are treated across various demographics.
Organisations such as the National Legal Aid (NLA) couldn’t be happier. The aim of the funding will be to assist the growing number of elders being abused by having better access to legal aid that should be readily available to victims. Chairman of NLA, Dr Graham Hill said, “This study will show that growing numbers of socially disconnected elderly Australians are being financially abused by family members, carers and scammers”, he continued, “Australia is one of the lower-funding nations when it comes to per capita spending on legal assistance services”.
“Our nation is on a chronological conveyor belt: every year, more and more people move from the over-60 age group into the over-80 group. As those numbers increase, so too will the incidence of elder abuse,” he said.
A significant number of elders are facing issues relating to their day-to-day care from a relative or carer. They may have disputes surrounding their estate, property, bank-accounts and even access to family members. Trying to get access to legal services to address their civil disputes is very challenging indeed.
Elder abuse victim cases can be varied and tend to range from:-
Some elderly people have physical and/or cognitive impairments which can impact decision making capacity and increase their dependence on others. Quite often, appointed Powers of Attorney may not fully comprehend the legal obligations that are imposed on them.
When appointing an attorney, consideration must be given to ensuring that a person is has the appropriate skills to act honestly and with reasonable diligence to avoid any vulnerable position of neglect or abuse.
Around 30% of Australians are born between 1946 and 1954. People are getting older, people are living longer and coupled with falling birth rates – put plainly, we need to look after our elders!
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